Hyperthyroidism is the state of excessive synthesis and release of the thyroid hormones by thyrocytes. Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. The condition may occur at any age but the prevalence increases with age. According to the classical paradigm, coexistence of genetic susceptibility, environment triggers and immunological dysfunction are responsible for its development. Diagnosis of Graves’ disease is based on presence of characteristic clinical symptoms, TSH receptor antibodies and excess of thyroid hormones. The management in pediatric population involves mainly pharmacotherapy (thyrostatics, β-adrenolitics), in resistant cases radical radioiodine I131 therapy or surgical treatment is necessary.
Part of the book: Graves' Disease