Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder affecting the small intestine. The condition represents an intolerance to gluten. Removal of dietary gluten permits recovery, with a full recovery for the majority of affected subjects. A percentage of affected subjects who do not improve with a gluten-free diet are considered to have refractory coeliac disease (RCD). Refractory coeliac disease is subdivided into type 1, characterised by a polyclonal expansion of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that have a normal phenotype, and type 2 (RCD2) which exhibits IELs with a monoclonal phenotype. Subjects with RCD carry a high risk of complications, including ulcerative jejunitis and lymphoma affecting the small intestine, the latter termed enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL).
Part of the book: Celiac Disease