This chapter aims to provide an overview of the transdisciplinary work of the Neurosurgeon, Neuroanesthesiologist and Neuropsychologist before, during and after the resection of a neoplasm in eloquent areas with the patient conscious under the 3A anesthesia modality (asleep, awake, asleep). The diagnostic approach and the logistics to carry out this procedure and achieve better results will be shown. At present there is growing evidence regarding the benefits of surgery in awake patients, with application in the treatment of epilepsy, abnormal movements and oncological surgery. The benefits of awake craniotomy are increased lesion removal, with improved survival benefit, whilst minimizing damage to eloquent cortex and resulting postoperative neurological dysfunction. Other advantages include a shorter hospitalization time, hence reduced cost of care, and a decreased incidence of postoperative complications. This approach has allowed to achieve a higher degree of resection with less morbidity and a higher quality of life.
Part of the book: Frontiers in Clinical Neurosurgery
This chapter describes the epidemiology, clinical and neuroimaging features, histological characteristics, surgical approach, outcomes, and prognostic factors of different cases of very rare intracranial tumors, associated with complex clinical syndromes. Highlighting the important aspects in the diagnosis and management that were considered relevant through the experience of our center. Here we included an intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease manifested as an apparent multiple meningiomatosis, a choroid plexus papilloma clinically manifested as a hemifacial spasm originated by a compression of the facial colliculus, and a neuroenteric cyst associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome. This type of tumor presents a challenge to the neurosurgeon, originating various questions about its management. In this chapter, we present the experience we had with these pathologies to establish the most appropriate management decisions.
Part of the book: Brain Tumors
The surgical approach to brain tumors often uses preoperative images to visualize the characteristics of pathology, guiding the surgical procedure. However, the usefulness of preoperative images during the surgical procedure is altered by the changes in the brain during the surgery because of craniotomy, inflammation, tumor resection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, among others. For this reason, there is a need to use intraoperative imaging evaluation methods that allow the surgeon to consider these changes, reflecting the real-time anatomical disposition of the brain/tumor. Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) has allowed neurosurgeons to guide the surgical procedure without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation or interrupting the procedure. Technological advances have made it possible to improve image quality, have smaller probes, and facilitate the use of the equipment, in addition to the introduction of new imaging modalities, such as three-dimensional images, enhanced with contrast, among others, expanding the available options. In the context of these advances, the objective of this chapter was to review the current status of the usefulness and challenges of iUS for brain tumor resection through an in-depth review of the literature and the discussion of an illustrative case.
Part of the book: Central Nervous System Tumors