Graves’ disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease and a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormones have multiple adverse effect on cardiovascular system through many direct and indirect mechanisms. They increases heart rate, cardiac contractility, systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, diastolic relaxation, and myocardial oxygen consumption, whereas decrease systemic vascular resistance and diastolic pressure. All these hemodynamic changes in cardiovascular system can eventually lead to heart failure, tachyarrhythmias, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, if left untreated. Cardiovascular complications of Graves’ disease are frequent and important cause of increased morbidity and mortality. This chapter reviews the cardiovascular complications of Graves’ hyperthyroidism with underlying mechanisms and treatment.
Part of the book: Graves' Disease