Survival rates for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma have increased to a remarkable 8–12 years. Novel agents, autologous stem cell transplantation, monoclonal antibodies, improvements in supportive care and attention to minimal residual disease negative all have aided this remarkable journey. With these treatments we are identifying tools to achieve complete remissions. Prognostic factors have an important role in selecting proper patient approaches for trial designs. Prognostic and predictive clinical biomarkers have shaped staging and treatment selections for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Here we review the Early Mortality Prediction Matrix to identify those at risk of an early death (<6 months) incorporating both disease biology with patient fitness. We also review current standards of care for multiple myeloma and provide a three and five-year overall survival prediction matrix. We review benefits for MRD negativity and Next-Gen Sequencing. These tools will help clinicians improve upon reducing early mortality in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients and provide further framework for improving survival by assessing clinical, biologic and individual multiple myeloma patients.
Part of the book: Multiple Myeloma