Dyslipidaemia tends to occur in children and adolescents and steadily worsens through to adulthood. The abnormal lipid profile in children with this disease is like what we see in adults with premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Identifying children with dyslipidaemia and successfully improving their lipid profile may reduce their risk of accelerated atherosclerosis and premature CVD. In those children with severe dyslipidaemia due to a family history, treatment is used to decrease the risk of cardiogenic events. Screening for lipid disorders in children is based on the rationale that early identification and control of paediatric dyslipidaemia will reduce the risk and severity of cardiovascular complications in adulthood. Though lipid disorders and associated diseases are rare in children in Africa, there has been little research in this field. Emerging research indicates that obesity and cholesterol concerns is on the rise within children and adolescents of African descent. The definition of paediatric dyslipidaemia and the approach to screening, and diagnosis of lipid disorders in children are discussed in this chapter.
Part of the book: Management of Dyslipidemia