We first derived site amplification factors (SAFs) from the observed strong motions by the Japanese nationwide networks, namely, K-NET and KiK-net of National Institute of Earthquake Research and Disaster Resilience and Shindokei (Instrumental Seismic Intensity) Network of Japan Meteorological Agency by using the so-called generalized spectral inversion technique. We can use these SAFs for strong motion prediction at these observation sites, however, we need at least observed weak motion or microtremor data to quantify SAF at an arbitrary site. So we tested the capability of the current velocity models in Japan whether they can reproduce or not the observed SAFs at the nearest grid of every 250 m as the one-dimensional theoretical transfer functions (TTF). We found that at about one-half of the sites the calculated 1D TTFs show more or less acceptable fit to the observed SAFs, however, the TTFs tend to underestimate the observed SAFs in general. Therefore, we propose a simple, empirical method to fill the gap between the observed SAFs and the calculated TTFs. Validation examples show that our proposed method effectively predict better SAFs than the direct substitute of TTFs at sites without observed data.
Part of the book: Earthquakes