Viral outbreaks have become significant threats to global human public health. New emerging viruses, pathogen mutations, and even the progressive loss of efficacy in some existing vaccines are behind this problem, which is amplified by the rapid virus spread given the ease of current mobility. Taking into account that these outbreaks arise in the absence of conventional effective vaccines, alternative approaches based on trained (innate) immunity are being considered. This immunity is dependent on a functional reprogramming of innate immune cells, leading to an enhanced nonspecific response towards different pathogens, including viruses. Trained immunity-based vaccines (TIbVs), defined as vaccine formulations containing trained immunity inducers, could be used during viral outbreaks to confer non-specific protection but also to enhance adaptive specific immune responses. In this chapter, we aim to illustrate how TIbVs could tackle the above-mentioned situations derived from viral outbreaks, reviewing the potential of available TIbVs in such urgent situations with a special mention to COVID-19.
Part of the book: Current Perspectives on Viral Disease Outbreaks