To date, little is known on the prevalence, incidence, and characteristics of intracranial aneurysms (IA) in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Based on our recent systematic review and two cases treated in our institute, we summarize the current evidence concerning the distinct characteristics of these aneurysms. In contrast to saccular IA in healthy adults, IA in TSC present commonly with large or even giant sac size and fusiform configuration, location predilection on the internal carotid artery remote from the branching zones, remarkable higher prevalence of pediatric cases, inverted sex-ratio, and suspected rapid growth. Although the pathogenesis of IA in TSC is still unclear, all these features might point to the crucial role a congenital defect in the development of IA rather than extrinsic or environmental factors. Furthermore, we discuss the enhancement of the regular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging screening suggested by the last recommendations of the 2012 International TSC Consensus Conference with cranial time-of-flight MR angiography in order to enable timely identification and treatment of frequently complex IA in TSC.
Part of the book: Advancement and New Understanding in Brain Injury