Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a difficult-to-treat blood cancer. A major challenge in treating patients with AML is relapse, which is caused by the persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Self-renewal is a defining property of LSCs and its deregulation is crucial for re-initiating a new leukemia after chemotherapy. Emerging therapeutic agents inhibiting aberrant self-renewal pathways, such as anti-RSPO3 monoclonal antibody discovered in our recent study, present significant clinical potential that may extend beyond the scope of leukemogenesis. In this chapter, we provide an overview of normal and malignant hematopoietic stem cells, discuss current treatments and limitations, and review key self-renewal pathways and potential therapeutic opportunities in AML.
Part of the book: Acute Leukemias