The DNA sequences are different between the distinct individuals and these variations produce the species genetic diversity. SARS-CoV-2 virus is a zoonotic SARS-like coronavirus that spreads globally, causing the COVID-19 pandemic disease. The immune response genes are the most various and different in the human genome, correlating with infectious diseases. Genetic variants in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, TMPRSS2, HO-1, BCL11A, and CYP2D6 are predicted to either encourage or inhibit the interaction with the viral proteins and subsequently contribute to coronavirus genetic risk factors. The genetic susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 was investigated by analyzing different genes’ polymorphisms such as ACE2 and TMPRSS2, HO-1, and BCL11A. A specific genetic susceptibility to COVID-19 was found through different populations in TMPRSS2, ACE2, HO-1, and BCL11A genes. Particularly, ACE2 gene polymorphisms were shown to be correlated with pulmonary and cardiovascular conditions by modifying the angiotensinogen-ACE2 system, which recommends the possible explanations of COVID-19 susceptibility based on genetic diversity. Moreover, the COVID-19 treatment could be complicated by such genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, a good characterization of functional polymorphisms and the host genetics can assist in identifying the pathophysiology of the disease pathway to stratify the risk evaluation and to personalize the treatment procedures.
Part of the book: Genetic Variation