Heterosis is a solitary means of exploiting hybrid vigor in crop plants. Given its yield advantage and economic importance, several hybrids in rice have been commercialized in more than 40 countries, which has created a huge seed industry worldwide. India has made commendable progress and commercialized 117 three-line indica hybrids for different ecology and duration (115–150 days), which accounted for 6.8% of total rice area in the country. Besides, several indigenous CMS lines developed in diversified genetic and cytoplasmic backgrounds are being utilized in hybrid rice breeding. NRRI, which has been pioneering to start with the technology, has developed three popular rice hybrids, viz., Ajay, Rajalaxmi, and CR Dhan 701 for irrigated-shallow lowland ecosystem. Biotechnological intervention has supplemented immensely in excavating desirable genomic regions and their deployment for further genetic enhancement and sustainability in rice hybrids. Besides, hybrid seed production creates additional job opportunity (100–105 more-man days) and comparatively more net income (70% more than production cost) than HYVs. Hence, this technology has great scope for further enhancement in per se rice productivity and livelihood of the nation.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Rice Research