Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without hyperactivity disorder is a neurobiological disorder that involves the interaction of the neuroanatomical and neurotransmitter systems. It is a developmental disorder of psychomotor skills that is manifested by impaired attention, motor hyperactivity and impulsivity. This disorder is characterized by early onset, the association of hyperactive and poorly coordinated behavior with marked inattention and lack of perseverance in performing tasks; and this behavior occurs in all situations and persists over time. This disorder is inappropriate for the child’s developmental age and maladaptive. Disorders of neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain with discrete neurological changes can lead to behavioral difficulties and other psychological problems. Most children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have comorbidities, often multiple comorbid conditions in the same person. Comorbidity was observed in both clinical and epidemiological samples. It is estimated that about two-thirds of children with this disorder have at least one other psychiatric disorder diagnosed. Symptoms persist and lead to significant difficulties in the daily functioning of the child, such as school success, social interactions, family and social functioning, etc. Recent studies indicate the presence of various neuroophthalmological disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD. The most common comorbidities in children and adolescents with ADHD that will be covered in this chapter are autism spectrum disorder, mood disorder, anxiety, learning disabilities, conduct disorders, tics disorder and epilepsy.
Part of the book: ADHD