Groundwater system is very vital to humanity and the ecosystem. Aquifers are determined based on the absence or presence of water table positioning, that is, confined, unconfined, leaky aquifers and fractured aquifers. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the characteristic and assessment of groundwater within the scope of vertical distribution of GW, types of the aquifer system, types of SW-GW interface, and SW-GW interaction at both local and regional scales. The properties of the aquifer depend on the physical characteristics of the materials (porosity, permeability, specific yield, specific storage, and hydraulic conductivities) which are determined by techniques like resistivity surveys and pumping tests followed by remote sensing and geographic information system for better information on the groundwater system. Furthermore, understanding the SW-GW interactions through available methods (seepage meter, heat tracer, and environmental tracer) is useful in watershed management, that is, risk management and assessment of the aquifer system.
Part of the book: Groundwater Management and Resources