In the treatment of esophageal cancer and palliative care, nutritional status plays an important role in the patients’ tolerance of treatment, affects the quality of life, and outcomes. Alimentation in such patients can be achieved by enteral or parenteral nutrition but the enteral route is the preferring option. Pre-pyloric feeding is easier and may result in greater nutritional benefits than post-pyloric feeding. Gastrostomy is the conventional option for intra-gastric feeding, hydration, and drug administration. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a minimally invasive procedure and is currently the procedure of choice. Two PEG techniques are clinically used worldwide: pull and push or introducer method. The pull-type technique is the most commonly used method, but the concerning point is that the implantation of esophageal cancer cells into the gastrostomy stroma. The introducer method is a safe alternative and effective technique for enteral feeding to the stomach with the avoidance of cancer cells seeding.
Corrosive ingestion is an important health problem and medical emergency worldwide. It occurs by accident or by intention. Acids cause coagulation necrosis, and alkalis cause liquefaction necrosis. In the acute period, stabilization of the patient is most important. Airway assessment and prompt management are a priority for severe cases. Caustic substance reflux into the esophagus resulting in further damage should be prevented. The initial evaluation should be performed by endoscopy and graded according to the Zargar classification. Computed tomography (CT) should be used to assess injury to the esophagus because CT is non-invasive. For Zargar 3b injuries, views from both endoscopy and CT scans should be considered. Post-corrosive esophageal stricture is a complication that responds poorly to treatment. Research and development for stricture prevention are ongoing, especially for Zargar 2b and 3a cases.
Part of the book: Dysphagia - New Advances