Arc welding processes are widely used in the industrial sector, mainly for productivity and continuity. However, these processes have several undesirable results, such as distortions and residual stresses (RS). When compared to other welding processes, the RS level can make the welded joint unfeasible. Many studies on these arc welding discontinuities have been carried out in experimental and numerical areas about their measurement, analysis, and control, however, not yet clearly enlightened, since it is a complex topic, both for industry and academia, needing to be deepened. This study aims to present a contextualized approach to destructive and non-destructive techniques used to measure RS generated by arc welding, as well as the influence of these distortions and stresses on the welded structures and, finally, to present possible control techniques. Finally, this study highlights the use of CW-GMAW welding, which achieved a reduction in stress and distortion levels, due to the introduction of a non-energized wire in the arc of the GMAW process, as evidenced by the results of RS measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and acoustic birefringence (AB). Thus, in this context, the approach to RS in arc welding presented here is extremely relevant for researchers involved with the topic.
Part of the book: Welding