Post-transcriptional regulation is an important step of gene expression that allows to fine-tune the cellular protein profile (so called proteome) according to the current demands. That mechanism has been developed to aid survival under stress conditions, however it occurs to be hijacked by cancer cells. Adjustment of the protein profile remodels signaling in cancer cells to adapt to therapeutic treatment, thereby enabling persistence despite unfavorable environment or accumulating mutations. The proteome is shaped at the post-transcriptional level by numerous mechanisms such as alternative splicing, mRNA modifications and triage by RNA binding proteins, change of ribosome composition or signaling, which altogether regulate the translation process. This chapter is an overview of the translation disturbances found in leukemia and their role in development of the disease, with special focus on the possible therapeutic strategies tested in acute leukemia which target elements of those regulatory mechanisms.
Part of the book: Acute Leukemias