The application of internet has spiked up in the present-day scenario, as the exchange of information made between two parties happens in public environment. Hence privacy of information plays an important role in our day to day life. There have been incredible developments made in the field of cryptography resulting in modern cryptography at its zenith. Quantum computers are one among them creating fear into security agencies across the world. Solving the complex mathematical calculations is uncomplicated using quantum computers which results in breaking the keys of modern cryptography, which cannot be broken using classical computers. The concept of quantum physics, into the cryptographic world has resulted in the advancement of quantum cryptography. This technique utilizes the idea of key generation by photons, and communicates between peer entities by secured channel. Quantum cryptography adapts quantum mechanical principles like Heisenberg Uncertainty principle and photon polarization principle to provide secure communication between two parties. This article focuses on generation of a secret shared key, later converted into Quantum bits (Qbits) and transmitted to the receiver securely.
Part of the book: Cryptography