Biomass torrefaction is capable of significantly improving the quality and properties of solid biofuels. It is often referred to as complex reactions involving the decomposition of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose as well as moisture evaporation due to several reactions involved. To evaluate the efficiency of the torrefaction process as well as the reactor performance, considering the economics of biomass torrefaction including the total production cost and capital investment, production capacity, feedstock input, feedstock type, pre-treatment, procurement and transportation costs is of high importance. In this Chapter, the economics of torrefaction process will be discussed. In addition, ways to ensure competitiveness of torrefaction technology will be explained provided factors including the use of plant with larger capacity, integrated system features such as pelletization, and moisture content of the feedstock, are properly considered. Thereafter, the concept of sustainability of biomass torrefaction in relation with the environmental factor (sustainable forest management), social factor (revitalization of rural areas), and economic factor (fossil fuels dependence and renewable energy consumption) will be presented.
Part of the book: Biotechnological Applications of Biomass
Stainless steels are widely recognized and find applications in many engineering industries and companies due to their excellent properties including high resistance to corrosion as a result of their minimum 10.5% chromium content, exceptional strength and durability, temperature resistance, high recyclability, and easy formability. In the present book chapter, the basic concepts of stainless steel including its applications, classifications, and corrosion properties will first be discussed. Thereafter, their corrosion behaviour will then be explained. The various methods by which the corrosion resistance behaviour can be significantly improved including surface treatments such as coatings/electrodepositions, alloying, mechanical treatment, and others will be discussed in detail.
Part of the book: Stainless Steels