Light harvesting for generation of electric energy is one of the most important research topics in applied sciences. First, for an efficient harvesting one needs a material with a broad light absorption window having a strong overlap with the sunlight spectrum. Second, one needs an efficient conversion of photoexcited carriers into produced current or voltage which can be used for applied purposes. The maximum light conversion coefficient in semiconductor systems is designated by so called Shockley-Queisser law, which is around 32% for an optimal bandgap value of 1,2–1,3 eV. However the efficiency may be increased using a solutions based on semiconductor nano materials such as quantum dots. Solar cells based on such a structures are included in the group of 3rd generation solar sell. 3rd generation solar cell encompasses multiple materials as a base of cell, such as: perovskite, organic, polymers and biomimetics. The most promising and in the same time most discussed are quantum dots and perovskite. Both material has a potential to revolutionize the solar cell industry due to their wide absorption range and high conversion coefficient. Nonetheless before the most common used material in photovoltaic namely silicon is replace one must overcome few major issues such as: stability and lifetime for at least 5 to 10 years or more, manufacturing process for a large surfaces and low production cost as well as recycling after the time of optimal use.
Part of the book: Solar Cells