Sarcopenia is one of geriatric syndromes, characterized by decreased muscle mass accompanied by decreased muscle strength and/or performance. It is more prevalent with increase in age, and the prevalence depends on the criteria applied and the characteristic of the elderly. Sarcopenia has a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. The definition criteria of sarcopenia are still controversial, but diagnostic criteria from the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) are the most used criteria for clinical practice. Pathogenesis sarcopenia involved a multifactorial process and is divided into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Risk factors for sarcopenia include constitutional factors, aging, lifestyle, changes in body condition, and chronic diseases. Based on that, sarcopenia is divided into primary and secondary sarcopenia. There are three stage of sarcopenia, which are pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia. Nutrition and exercise are the two main pillars to manage sarcopenia.
Part of the book: Background and Management of Muscular Atrophy