A wetland is a unique and distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail, and the primary distinctive factor of wetlands from other landforms or water bodies is the occurrence of adaptive vegetation of aquatic plants, characteristic to the unique hydric soil. A constructed wetland is an artificial shallow basin filled with substrate, usually soil or gravel, and planted with vegetation that has tolerance to saturated conditions. As much as the use of constructed wetland has been recommended in the treatment of various forms of wastewater, the system efficiency is a factor of very many natural and artificial factors, with the emerging pollutants and contaminants such as resistant genes being the most complicated contaminants to eliminate through the system. Indeed, the emerging pollutants in forms of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) have remained prevalent in aquatic environments such as wetlands that receive ARG-loaded sewage. Therefore, this chapter covers a discussion on constructed wetlands in wastewater treatment and challenges of emerging contaminants, such as resistant genes filtration and reloading mechanisms, and provides recommendation for the proper handling and removal of such pollutants from the wetlands’ functional system.
Part of the book: Inland Waters