Climate change is affecting all four dimensions of food security: food availability, food accessibility, food utilization, and food systems stability. It is also affecting human health, livelihood assets, food production, and distribution channels, as well as changing purchasing power and market flows. Keeping in view, the present chapter is focusing mostly on biochar. Biochar is usually produced by pyrolysis of biomass at around temperature range of 300–600°C. It is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration to produce negative carbon emissions. Present agriculture is leading mining of nutrients and reduction in soil organic matter levels through repetitive harvesting of crops. The most widespread solution to this depletion is the application of soil amendments in the form of fertilizers containing the three major nutrients. The nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for plant growth useful for protein builds, structures, hormones, chlorophyll, vitamins, and enzymes. Biochar may be added to soils to improve soil health, improve soil fertility, and sequester carbon. However, the variable application rates, uncertain feedstock effects, and initial soil state provide a wide range of cost for marginally improved yield from biochar additions, which is often economically impracticable. There is a need for further research on optimizing biochar application to improve crop yields.
Part of the book: Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety
The rising concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (aCO2) and increasing temperature are the main reasons for climate change, which are significantly affecting crop production systems in this world. However, the elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration can improve the growth and development of crop plants by increasing photosynthetic rate (higher availability of photoassimilates). The combined effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and temperature on crop growth and carbon metabolism are not adequately recognized, while both eCO2 and temperature triggered noteworthy changes in crop production. Therefore, to increase crop yields, it is important to identify the physiological mechanisms and genetic traits of crop plants which play a vital role in stress tolerance under the prevailing conditions. The eCO2 and temperature stress effects on physiological aspects as well as biochemical profile to characterize genotypes that differ in their response to stress conditions. The aim of this review is directed the open-top cavities to regulate the properties like physiological, biochemical, and yield of crops under increasing aCO2, and temperature. Overall, the extent of the effect of eCO2 and temperature response to biochemical components and antioxidants remains unclear, and therefore further studies are required to promote an unperturbed production system.
Part of the book: Abiotic Stress in Plants
Light is crucial environmental factor for primary resource and signalling in plants and provide optimum fitness under fluctuating environments from millions of year. However, due to urbanization, and human development activities lot of excess light generated in environment during night time and responsible for anthropogenic generated pollution (ALAN; artificial night light pollution). This pollution has cause for serious problem in plants as it affects their processes and functions which are under the control of light or diurnal cycle. Plant biorhythms mostly diurnal rhythms such as stomatal movements, photosynthetic activity, and many more metabolic processes are under the control of period of light and dark, which are crucially affected by artificial light at night. Similarly, the crucial plant processes such as pollination, flowering, and yield determining processes are controlled by the diurnal cycle and ALAN affects these processes and ultimately hampers the plant fitness and development. To keep in mind the effect of artificial light at night on plant biorhythm and eco-physiological processes, this chapter will focus on the status of global artificial night light pollution and the responsible factors. Further, we will explore the details mechanisms of plant biorhythm and eco-physiological processes under artificial light at night and how this mechanism can be a global threat. Then at the end we will focus on the ANLP reducing strategies such as new light policy, advanced lightening technology such as remote sensing and lightening utilisation optimisation.
Part of the book: Light Pollution, Urbanization and Ecology