The idea presented in this chapter is an innovative welding machine electrode force system. The operation, advantages of the new solution and the optimisation of the welding process were illustrated by the welding of aluminium bars (5182) (ø 4 mm). The solution involves controlling the force and/or displacement of welding machine electrodes. The modulation of electrode force significantly improves welding, particularly as regards aluminium alloys (requiring a very short welding process). The tests involved the numerical analysis of two electrode force systems, i.e. a conventional Pneumatic Force System (PFS) and an Electromechanical (Servomechanical Force) System (EFS). The numerical tests were performed using SORPAS software. FEM calculation results were verified experimentally. The technological welding tests were conducted using inverter welding machines (1 kHz) equipped with various electrode force systems. The research included metallographic and strength (peeling) tests and measurements of characteristic parameters. The welding process optimisation based on the EFS and the hybrid algorithm of force control resulted in i) more favourable space distribution of welding power, ii) energy concentration in the central weld zone, iii) favourable melting of the material within the entire weld transcrystallisation zone, iv) obtainment of the full weld nugget and v) longer weld nugget diameter.
Part of the book: Advanced Aluminium Composites and Alloys