Maize is a cross-pollinated, polymorphic plant in nature. It is commonly a moderately salt-sensitive crop. Salinity stress is the main abiotic factor that arrests the physiological characteristics and plant growth of a maize plant. It causes the osmotic effect, associated with an increase in phytotoxic ions, oxidative stress by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and ionic effect in the cytosol. These salinity effects hinder the maize plant’s physiological processes such as respiration, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal functioning, hormone regulation, and functioning, seed germination, and dormancy and water relation with plants and ultimately reduce the plant growth and yield. However, the physiology of maize subjected to salinity shows various responses that depend on the genetic responses and growth stages. Maize plant undergoes many physiological changes and adapts some mechanism internally to cope with salinity stress. Numerous mitigating strategies such as application of chemicals, application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), application of hormones, and use of genetic and molecular techniques are used to handle salinity. This chapter will cover the effect of salinity on maize growth, its physiology, and physiological adaptations of maize plants with management strategies.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology