The codling moth is a threat to the apple industries in India. Currently, no solutions are available for the management of codling moth in Ladakh. Therefore, all fresh fruits from Ladakh are still banned due to quarantine regulations. Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh and Ladakh are the three main apple producing states of India, both in quality and quantity. The ban on all fresh fruits from Ladakh directly affects the economy of rural populations. These fruits are sold in all the local markets of Kargil and Leh. Apples damaged by the larvae of codling moth are less preferred by inhabitants, tourists, and security forces, a large area of Ladakh is bordered with China and Pakistan. Field demonstration trials revealed significantly less fruit damage in apple orchards in different hamlets of Ladakh using pheromone dispensers, pheromone baited traps, and two applications of insecticides for codling moth management. A demonstration of the use of pheromone and pheromone dispenser technology for area-wide management for high dense populations of the codling moth in Ladakh has revealed successful results in the orchards of the apple growers. Area-wide management of the codling moth in some villages, using dispenser technology has shown promising results. The ban of fresh fruits in Ladakh may not be, therefore, appropriate as management of the codling moth appears to be successful with the use of pheromone dispenser technology. This technology will, surely, boost the apple industry and have a great potential for establishing commercial orchards and quality apples in high altitudes in the second-highest cold arid region of the world.
Part of the book: Moths and Caterpillars
There are lot of reasons and causes of insect decline. The main causes of insect decline is attributed to habitat destruction, land use changes, deforestation, intensive agriculture, urbanization, pollution, climate change, introduction of invasive insect species, application of pesticides, mass trapping of insects using pheromones and light traps, pathological problems on various insects, and introduction of exotic honey bees in new areas that compete with the native bees for resource portioning and other management techniques for pest management, and even not leaving any pest residue for predators and parasitoids for their survival. The use of chemical insecticides against target or non-target organisms is major cause for insect decline. The diseases and decline of the important pollinators is still a mistry for colony collapse disorder. To overcome the cause of insect decline, various conservation techniques to be adopted and augmentation of artificial nesting and feeding structures, use of green pesticides, maintaining the proper pest defender ratio (P:D), policies and reaching to political audience at global level and other factors already discussed in the chapter may be helpful for mitigating the insect decline and especially for the pollinators, a key insect for life.
Part of the book: Global Decline of Insects
During the offseason, when fresh food is not available, humans have to consume stored grain food. Unfortunately, these stored grains are later infested with many pests. Foods stored in bags and bins are very much susceptible to infestation with several pests which can cause extensive post-harvest losses, spoilage, and less demand in markets, causing a huge economic crisis. Hence, successful management of stored grain pests becomes necessary to prevent these from insect pests. Current approaches for their management are one of the promising goals, as it includes preventive practices, monitoring, sanitation, and identification of main pathogens. Different management strategies of all the common stored grain pests viz. grain weevils, grain borers, grain moths, flour moths, mealworms, grain and flour beetles, booklice, mites, and parasites are enlisted here.
Part of the book: Postharvest Technology