Clay has its widespread applications in pharmaceuticals from ancient world to modern era. It is one of the excellent excipients present in the commercially available pharmaceuticals. Its use in many of dosage forms viz. in suspension, emulsion, ointments, gels, tablet and as drug delivery carrier as suspending agent, emulsifying agent, stiffening agent, binder, diluent, opacifier, and as release retardant have been explored in many studies. Variety of minerals is used as both excipient and as an active ingredient; among that kaolinite, talc, and gypsum are important. Their inertness, low toxicity, versatile physiochemical properties and cost effectiveness has increased its usage in pharma industries. Many minerals have its own pharmacological action as antacid, anti-bacterial, anti-emetic, anti- diarrheal agent and as skin protectant etc. Their unique structure which helps them to absorb material onto their layered sheets has opened a wide variety of applications in drug delivery. The understanding of surface chemistry and particle size distribution of clay minerals has led the pharmaceutical field in many directions and future perspectives.
Part of the book: Clay Science and Technology