Ultrasound (US) technology is already into the research field providing a powerful tool of producing nanomaterials or being implicated in decoration procedures of catalyst supports for energy applications and material production. Toward this concept, low or/and high-frequency USs are used for the production of nanoparticles, the decoration of catalytic supported powders (carbon-based, titania, and alumina) with nanoparticles, and the production of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). MOFs are porous, crystalline materials, which consist of metal centers and organic linkers. Those structures demonstrate high surface area, open metal sites, and large void space. All the above produced materials are used in heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, and energy storage. Batteries and fuel cells are popular systems for electrochemical energy storage, and significant progress has been made in nanostructured energy materials in order to improve these storage devices. Nanomaterials have shown favorable properties, such as enhanced kinetics and better efficiency as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).
Part of the book: Nanotechnology and the Environment