International health security (IHS) prioritizes cross-border threats to nations such as epidemics, bioterrorism, and climate change. In the modern era, however, the leading causes of mortality are not infectious. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Over three-quarters of CVD deaths take place in low-income countries, illustrating a disparity in care. Traumatic injury also remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, placing a particularly heavy burden upon countries with limited resources. Cerebrovascular disease and acute stroke syndromes are major causes of mortality and disability worldwide. Programs leading to timely revascularization have proven to be the most powerful predictor of disease outcomes. The health of women and children is vital to creating a healthy world. The impact of neonatal resuscitation programs on mortality has been a major force in advancing international health security. Finally, the establishment of emergency medical services (EMS) systems has been shown to improve the health of communities in both high- and low-income nations. In order to address health security on a global scale, government authorities and public health institutions must incorporate access to modern systems of care addressing the major determinants of health and primary causes of mortality.