Nanotechnology is a new emerging interdisciplinary approach created by pairing of engineering, chemical, and biological approaches. This technology produces nanoparticles using different methods of traditional physical and chemical processes; however, the outlook in this field of research is to use ecofriendly, nontoxic, and clean methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Biological entities, such as plants, bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and actinomycetes, are the best candidate to achieve this goal. Among the biological route, those involve endophtic microorganisms to reduce metallic ions into nanoparticles. This method is considered as an attractive option and can open a new horizon on the interface of biology and nanotechnology. The present chapter highlights the latest research about endophytic microorganisms and their application in the synthesis of nanoparticles, as well as the mechanisms involved in the formation of nanoparticles.
Part of the book: Nanotechnology and the Environment