Receptor is a dynamic instrumental surface protein that helps to interact with specific molecules to respond accordingly. Platelet is the smallest in size among the blood components, but it plays many pivotal roles to maintain hemostasis involving its surface receptors. It (platelet) has cell adhesion receptors (e.g., integrins and glycoproteins), leucine-rich repeats receptors (e.g., TLRs, glycoprotein complex, and MMPs), selectins (e.g., CLEC, P-selectin, and CD), tetraspanins (e.g., CD and LAMP), transmembrane receptors (e.g., purinergic—P2Y and P2X1), prostaglandin receptors (e.g., TxA2, PGH2, and PGI2), immunoglobulin superfamily receptors (e.g., FcRγ and FcεR), etc. on its surface. The platelet receptors (e.g., glycoproteins, protease-activated receptors, and GPCRs) during platelet activation are over expressed and their granule contents are secreted (including neurotransmitters, cytokines, and chemokines) into circulation, which are found to be correlated with different physiological conditions. Interestingly, platelets promote metastasis through circulation protecting from cytolysis and endogenous immune surveillance involving several platelets receptors. The updated knowledge about different types of platelet receptors in all probable aspects, including their inter- and intra-signaling mechanisms, are discussed with respect to not only its (platelets) receptor type but also under different pathophysiological conditions.
Part of the book: Platelets
Neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) are a broad range of pathological conditions which target the neurons, creating problems in movements and mental functions. The NDDs have drawn a lot of attention among the diseases because of its complexity in causes and symptoms, lack of proper effective treatment(s), no report of irreversibility, and poor impact on social and financial aspects. Individual’s vulnerability towards the stress-related biochemical alterations including increase in oxidase enzymes’ activities and generation of free radicals, abnormal protein dynamics, mitochondrial dysfunctions, and neuroinflammation often lead to degeneration of neuronal cells. Some advanced techniques are now able to detect the development and progression of different NDDs’ complications. The current focus of research on NDDs is to establish convenient therapeutic strategies by targeting different aspects including upliftment of cellular defense mechanisms, especially oxidoreductases as a protective tool. This chapter focused on those updated information on the development, diagnosis, prevention, and therapeutic strategies of NDDs.
Part of the book: Oxidoreductase