Application of biochar and ionic liquid-impregnated biochar was successfully tested for removal of nonbiodegradable polar halogenated aromatic contaminants (anti-inflammatory agents diclofenac and flufenamic acid and azo dye Mordant Blue 9) from contaminated aqueous solutions. The time dependence of removal efficiencies and adsorption isotherms were evaluated, and the effect of applied ionic liquids (quaternary ammonium salts) was considered. The determined removal efficiencies of the abovementioned contaminants based on the application of biochar or biochar combined with quaternary ammonium salts were compared with the action of commercially available active carbon and/or published results obtained by the action of additional low-cost sorbents. It was demonstrated that a more laborious two-step technique, based on the initial preparation of impregnated biochar by the action of R4NCl with subsequent application of this modified sorbent, is much less effective than simple mixing of biochar with R4NCl directly in the treated wastewater solution.
Part of the book: Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety