Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are neurodegenerative diseases where several biomarkers have suggested that a single measurement is not a sufficient biomarker. The observation of increased concentration of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and silver (Ag) in erythrocytes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) shows a need to look for new approaches to understand the complex synchronistic effects of the cell metabolism. We have used a simplified scheme to follow some of the effects by following a hierarchy of reactions simplified to monitor elements in peripheral blood cells, e.g., erythrocytes. Erythrocytes carry oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide and waste to the lungs and back when passing from different organs including the brain. Erythrocytes also have the capacity to carry metal ions, which may be transferred to other organs, e.g., brain, despite the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus filter. If transfer of Cd, Pb, and Ag is continued too long, the repair systems may not be sufficient, and epigenetic effects on DNA and RNA may begin. Peripheral blood cells, e.g., erythrocytes, may help get earlier individual indications of changes at the cell level by using ICP-MS.
Part of the book: Personalized Medicine, in Relation to Redox State, Diet and Lifestyle