The 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Condition identified the gingivitis case by the presence of gingival inflammation at one or more sites and agreed upon bleeding on probing as the primary parameter for diagnosis of gingivitis. Clinical gingival health is generally associated with an inflammatory infiltrate and a host response consistent with homeostasis. The molecules that play a role in the pathogenesis are divided into two main groups: those derived from the subgingival microbiota (i.e., microbial virulence factors) and those derived from the host immune-inflammatory response. The immune system is essential for the maintenance of periodontal health and is categorized as innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Innate immunity reflects the capacity of the host to defend against infectious attacks. Understanding the disease processes is important for the development of improved treatment strategies.
Part of the book: Oral Diseases