Genotoxicological studies are emerging as fundamental for knowing the hazards to our genome, to our health. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the preferable organisms for toxicological research considering its metabolic similarities (viz. on dietary input, xenobiotic metabolizing system, antioxidant enzymes and DNA repair systems) to mammals. Accordingly, somatic mutation and recombination tests (SMARTs) of D. melanogaster are fast and low-cost in vivo assays that have shown solid results evaluating genotoxicity. The w/w + SMART uses the white (w) gene as a recessive marker to monitor the presence of mutant ommatidia (eye units), indicating the occurrence of point mutations, deletions, mitotic recombination or/and nondisjunction. Additionally, several studies used SMARTs to assess antigenotoxicity, with some using the w/w + SMART. We reviewed the state of the art of the w/w + SMART used for antigenotoxicity analysis, focusing on published results, aiming to contribute to the conception of a reliable protocol in antigenotoxicity. As such, genotoxic agents with known action mechanisms, as streptonigrin (oxidative stress inducer), were used as a genotoxic insult for proving the antigenotoxic effects of natural substances (e.g. seaweeds), demonstrating the presence of antimutagens in their composition. These antigenotoxicity studies are crucial for promoting preventive measures against environmental genotoxics that affect humans daily.
Part of the book: Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity