Biochar is a stable carbon-rich product synthesized from biological materials through different heating methods above the decomposition temperature. The potential uses of biochar in various fields include soil fertility improvement, C sequestration, pollutant removal and waste minimization/reuse. In recent years, large number of research has confirmed that biochar can be used successfully for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The main aim of this chapter is to summarize and assess the sorption capacity of biochar toward various heavy metal ions. Considering that sorption is a surface phenomenon, the key parameters controlling the formation of biochar including pyrolysis temperature, residence time, and feedstock type will be discussed in detail. In addition, the mechanism associated with remediation of heavy metal ions and the physicochemical factors affecting the sorption potential will be discussed. Mathematical models employed in the sorption studies will be given special importance. The modification procedures used to enhance the sorption capacity of biochar will also be highlighted.
Part of the book: Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety