Anemia is growing in importance as a public health issue and a biomedical research priority in the geriatric age group but data on the causes and prevalence is not substantial. World health organization (WHO) has defined anemia as hemoglobin concentration (Hb %) below 12 g/dL in women and below 13 g/dL in men. Although it was previously believed that decline in Hb levels might be a normal consequence of aging, later suggested that anemia does reflect underlying poor health and makes elders vulnerable to adverse outcomes. Geriatric anemia has been found to be prevalent in up to 21.1% of patients in Europe and 11.0% of men and 10.2% of women of 65 years and older in the US. There is little literature that explores the various causes of anemia and its association with socio-demographic profile with underlying diseases, hence lesser research has led anemia to go undiagnosed and untreated.
Part of the book: Update in Geriatrics
Papillary neoplasm of breast comprises of seven separate heterogeneous entities ranging from benign, atypical and malignancy including non-invasive and invasive carcinoma. Papillary carcinoma (PC) is seen more commonly in older postmenopausal women with favorable prognosis. PC breast typically presents with bloody nipple discharge and an abnormal mass with radiologic features of intraductal mass. Encapsulated PC and solid PC is to be treated as in situ carcinoma, but distinction of invasive PC from non invasive carcinoma is critical both at microscopic and molecular level. So, surgical excision should be the choice of definitive diagnostic technique in papillary neoplasm instead of core needle biopsy. Furthermore, treatment guidelines for invasive PC also have been framed, but incidence of recurrence and death attributable to various subtypes of carcinoma remained same. So, this is important topic to be addressed to understand the need for further management and outcome of the disease.
Part of the book: Global Women's Health