Due to the modern lifestyle and the formation of large amounts of biodegradable sludge, its processing is becoming a demanding technological and logistical project. Stabilization with pozzolanic ash and its reuse in construction industry represents one of the possible sustainable solutions. Mixing biodegradable sludge with pozzolanic ash triggers a set of physiochemical reactions such as converting heavy metals into insoluble hydroxides, forming heat due to hydration of metal oxides, and forming of a set of pozzolanic structures due to high pH and heat. Studies showed that the produced material is biologically and chemically inert and safe for use under controlled conditions. Comparison of different most widely used technologies, using life cycle analysis, indicated advantages of using material conversion of biodegradable sludge into materials rather than using it for energetic purposes. Based on the calculation of their negative influence on the environment and human health, the analyzed technologies can be categorized from those with less impact to those with higher impact: stabilization with ash < pyrolysis < anaerobic digestion < composting < landfilling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) showed that the decentralized technologies enabling material use of biodegradable sludge are more sustainable than centralized installations for composting biodegradable sludge in large quantities.
Part of the book: Sustainable Sewage Sludge Management and Resource Efficiency