Air pollution is a worldwide health problem, and metals are one of the various air pollutants to which living creatures are exposed. The pollution by metals such as: lead, cadmium, manganese, and vanadium have a common mechanism of action: the production of oxidative stress in the cell. Oxidative stress favors the production of free radicals, which damage biomolecules such as: DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates; these free radicals produce changes that are observed in different organs and systems. Vanadium is a transition element delivered into the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels as oxides and adhered to the PM enters into the respiratory system, then crosses the alveolar wall and enters into the systemic circulation. In this chapter, we will review the oxidative stress induced by vanadium—as a common mechanism of metal pollutants—; in addition, we will review the protective effect of the antioxidants (carnosine and ascorbate).
Part of the book: Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity