As we all know, vacuum system is the essential part for the accelerators and colliders, which provide the vacuum environment to minimize beam-gas interactions and maintain normal operation of the beams. With the proposals of future accelerators and colliders, such as Future Circular Collider (FCC), Super Proton-Proton Collider (SPPC), and International Linear Collider (ILC), it is time to review and focus on the key technologies involved in the optimization designs of the vacuum system of various kinds of accelerators and colliders. High vacuum gradient and electron cloud are the key issues for the vacuum system design of high-energy accelerators and colliders. This chapter gives a brief overview of these two key issues of vacuum system design and operations in high-energy, high-intensity, and high-luminosity accelerators and collider.
Part of the book: Accelerators and Colliders