Biofilms can be found on several living and nonliving surfaces, which are formed by a group of microorganisms, complex assembly of proteins, polysaccharides, and DNAs in an extracellular polymeric matrix. By forming a biofilm, bacteria protect themselves from host defense, disinfectants, and antibiotics. Bacteria inside biofilm are much more resistant to antimicrobial agents than planktonic forms since bacteria that are unresisting to antimicrobial agents in any way can turn resistant after forming a biofilm. Low penetration of antibiotics into the biofilm, slow reproduction, and the existence of adaptive stress response constitute the multiphased defense of the bacterium. This antibiotic resistance, which is provided by biofilm, makes the treatments, which use effective antibiotic doses on the bacterium in planktonic shape, difficult. Biofilm formation potential of bacteria appears as an important virulence factor in ensuring the colonization on the living tissues or medical devices and makes the treatment difficult. The aim of this chapter is to overview the current knowledge of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in biofilms.
Part of the book: Bacterial Biofilms