The gastrointestinal system anomalies in the newborn infants are not uncommon and are due to either embryogenesis defects or intrauterine vascular accidents resulting in a compromise of fetal blood circulation to specific system organs. The symptoms generally present within first 1–2 days of life and are mostly referable to intestinal obstruction, manifesting as vomiting, feeding difficulty and distension of abdomen. Other defects may have distinct signs and symptoms and variable time of onset. Some defects may be diagnosed antenatally during prenatal maternal care. The investigations include radiography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and in a majority of cases clinical presentation and plain radiography may provide adequate diagnostic information. The outcomes of surgical repair are variable and depend upon the original pathological defect. Here, the common anomalies are described with their clinical presentation, surgical repair techniques and outcomes.
Part of the book: Congenital Anomalies in Newborn Infants