This chapter reviews various interferon (IFN) system disturbances—interferonopathies. The authors describe clinical specifics of type I interferonopathy associated with overexpression of IFNα—which is a rare Mendelian genetic disease. Certain autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), vasculitis, immune dysregulation syndrome, etc.) are also characterized by overproduction of IFNα. Furthermore the most common interferonopathies are described—deficiencies of IFN, congenital or acquired IFNα/IFNβ and IFNγ deficiencies in children and adults. Deficiency of IFNα/IFNβ associated with severe recurrent viral infections and deficiency of IFNγ cause mycobacterial infection. Interferon-corrective therapy methods are described. The target therapy of type I interferonopathies (biologics) binds IFNα and normalizes the high level of IFNα. From the other side, patients with congenital IFNα deficiencies are needed in replacement IFN therapy. In case of acquired IFNα deficiency, the differentiated interferon-corrective therapy is performed. In both replacement and interferon-corrective therapies, recombinant human IFNα2b in complex with antioxidants (Viferon®) can be used, because their application is safe and has good clinical efficiency and no side effects.
Part of the book: Innate Immunity in Health and Disease