Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de VitóriaBrazil
Cervical ectopic pregnancy is rare. Cervical implantation is a serious obstetric condition that can lead to mutilation if not promptly diagnosed and treated. The clinical diagnosis consists in physical examination, ballooned cervical canal, dilated cervix, and hourglass-shaped uterus detected by internal examination. Ultrasonography confirms the diagnosis by visually detecting cervical implantation below the internal orifice. Magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional ultrasonography validates the diagnosis. Conservative treatment proposed: cerclage, vasopressin, Foley catheter with hemostatic cervical ligation, cervical canal balloon, embolization of uterine artery, hysteroscopy, laparoscopic ligation of the uterine artery, and curettage by suction catheter. Shortcomings of conservative management are high, and a number of cases result in hysterectomy. Drug management is a therapeutic option to avoid mutilating surgery, and the most commonly used is systemic methotrexate (MTX). Local treatment with MTX and potassium chloride injection guided by transvaginal ultrasound is used when the embryo is alive.
Part of the book: Non-tubal Ectopic Pregnancy