Urological applications of neuromodulation and neurostimulation are among the most evolving fields for these technologies. First approved for management of refractory urge incontinence, different modalities of neuromodulation and stimulation have been tested, applied and verified for a vast spectrum of voiding and pelvic floor dysfunction disorders. The modalities of delivering this treatment have also evolved in the last three decades, with a focus on sacral neuromodulation. The experimental and established “off-label” applications of neuromodulation have also encompassed chronic pelvic pain disorders, including chronic prostatitis and bladder pain syndrome, among others. In this chapter, we discuss all the hypothesized theories suggested on how this technology provides therapeutic potential for a number of chronic and debilitating urological conditions, the modes of delivery be it anterior, sacral, and posterior tibial to name a few, and the evolving and future applications.