In Scandinavia, EM measurements have traditionally been popular in sulfide ore exploration. The EM methods using a stationary cable loop or a long wire on the ground surface were called Turam. The wire was grounded by electrodes at the ends. The name, Turam meaning two coils, got the name after the measurement system using two coils measuring the quotient and the phase difference of the vertical field. The measurements were performed in the frequency domain, with frequencies around 400 Hz. Using a large cable loop or a long wire grounded at both ends has advantages as energizing transmitter, which should be utilized in deep exploration. The fall-off rate for the primary field is small, and the electric field can be directed in line with strike direction or the direction of the axis of the mineralization. Examples of the interaction between the energizing cable and the conducting half-space are illustrated by computed models. The grounding points can be shifted with repeated measurements for each grounding position. Both man-made and geological noise can be reduced in this way. Field examples are given in the chapter.
Part of the book: Geophysics and Ocean Waves Studies