This paper reviews some of the characteristics of urban climates and the causes and effects of urban heat island (UHI) issues in the tropical climate. UHI effect is a kind of heat accumulation phenomenon within the urban areas due to urban construction and human activities. It is recognized as the most evident characteristic of urban climate. The increase of land surface temperature in San Juan, Puerto Rico, caused by the UHI effect was influenced by the change of land use and material types in construction. The impacts of daily temperature, surface albedo, evapotranspiration (ET), and anthropogenic heating on the near-surface climate are discussed. Analyzed data and field measurements indicate that increasing albedo and vegetation cover can be effective in reducing the surface and air temperatures near the ground. Some mitigation and prevention measures are proposed for the effects of UHI, such as a flash flood warning system.
Part of the book: Vortex Dynamics Theories and Applications