Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) refers to a spectrum of clinical and neuroimaging findings resulting from pathological processes of various etiologies affecting cerebral arterioles, perforating arteries, capillaries, and venules. It is the commonest neurological problem that results in significant disability, but awareness of it remains poor. It affects over half of people over 65 years old and inflicts up to third of acute strokes, over 40% of dementia, and a significant decline in physical ability in otherwise asymptomatic, aging individuals. Moreover, the unifying theory for the pathomechanism of the disease remains elusive and hence the apparent ineffective therapeutic approaches. Given the growing literature for natural vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) as a potent antioxidant, this chapter attempts to consolidate the contemporary evidence to shed plausible insights on the neuroprotective potentials of natural vitamin E in addressing the heterogenous CSVD spectrum, in health and in disease.
Part of the book: Neuroprotection
The neuroprotective potential of stingless bee honey (SBH) is still to be documented from numerous studies including that of its effect on cerebrovascular event. This review should guide stroke rehabilitation specialties to a high understanding of the overall circuit changes post-stroke, the clinical relevance of this change in stroke to cognitive impairment and dementia, and SBH as a supplementation in modern stroke rehabilitation in progresses. However, the potential of SBH as a supplementation therapy and highlights treatment to induced plasticity for post-stroke vascular cognitive impairment (PSVCI) remains largely unexplored. This Chapter attempts to deliberate on recent evidence that highlight the therapeutic properties of honey and SBH, the features of PSVCI, and proposing the plausible mechanism of action for SBH as a supplementation during stroke rehabilitation that could halt the progression of PSVCI. It is hoped that such an approach could complement the existing evidence-based stroke care, and which will help in the development of future direction of brain plasticity to delay the progression of cognitive impairment post-stroke.
Part of the book: Post-Stroke Rehabilitation