Vasospasm refers to a condition in which an arterial spasm leads to vasoconstriction. This can lead to tissue ischemia and necrosis. Coronary vasospasm can lead to significant cardiac ischemia associated with symptomatic ischemia or cardiac arrhythmia. Cerebral vasospasm is an essential source of morbidity and mortality in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. It can happen within 3–15 days with a peak incidence at 7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Calcium channel blockers are widely used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, and other disorders like SAH vasospasm related and Migraine. The specific treatment of cerebral vasospasm helps improving cerebral blood flow to avoid delayed ischemic neurologic deficit by reducing ICP, optimizing the rate of cerebral oxygen demand, and enhancing cerebral blood flow with one of the following approaches: indirect pharmacological protection of brain tissue or direct mechanical dilation of the vasospastic vessel. Nimodipine is the standard of care in aneurysmal SAH patients. Nimodipine 60 mg every 4 hours can be used for all patients with aneurysmal SAH once the diagnosis is made for 21 days.
Part of the book: New Insight into Cerebrovascular Diseases