Periodontal tissue is susceptible to a range of adverse effects of several medications used in daily medical practice. Phenytoin, cyclosporine, and calcium-channel blockers are the most commonly used drugs related to gingival disease. Several other medications can also have an adverse effect on the periodontium, especially in the presence of compromised oral hygiene. These medications act on periodontal tissues by triggering the inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease or by potentially compromising the management of patients with these conditions. Gingival overgrowth is probably the mostly widely recognized and investigated type of adverse drug reaction in the periodontal tissues. Since many patients are on such medications, dental practitioner should take a thorough medical history and be aware of medication-related problems and their potential effects on diagnosis and treatment planning. The chapter reviews the commonly prescribed medications that can affect the periodontium either in its healthy or inflamed condition.
Part of the book: Oral Diseases